Introduction to Ceramic Identification
Since prehistoric times, engineered ceramic and glass materials have had significant roles in most technologies. Ceramics is one of the most ancient industries going back thousands of years. Once humans discovered that clay could be found in abundance and formed into objects by first mixing with water and then firing, a key industry was born.
In this location, hundreds of clay figurines representing Ice Age animals were also uncovered near the remains of a horseshoe-shaped kiln. The first examples of pottery appeared in Eastern Asia several thousand years later. It is believed that from China the use of pottery successively spread to Japan and the Russian Far East region where archeologists have found shards of ceramic artifacts dating to 14, BCE.
Earthenware was the first kind of pottery made, dating back about 9, years. In the 21st century, it is still widely used. creamware vase.
Originally, Delftware, or Delft pottery is blue and white pottery made in and around Delft in the Netherlands from the 16th century Later delftware came to refer to a type of pottery in which a white glaze is applied, and typically decorated with metal oxide colors. Delftware includes pottery objects of all descriptions such as plates, ornaments and tiles. This book includes 24 color and monochrome illustrations featuring every piece of delftware the authors could find from around the world.
It includes more than 1, entries for objects ranging in date from C. Book includes a newspaper article on delftware. Scarce Limited Edition, hand numbered as of printed. Published by: Sotheby Publications, London. AS IS! Please see photos. More photos available upon request.
Gien marks and dates
The most frequently found artefact on the archaeological excavation site is the potsherd. Sherds are broken remnant pieces of items such as bowls, jugs, drinking vessels and most commonly, pots. Most sites are literally smothered with potsherds, some large the size of a hand and some small only as big as a fingernail. It is relatively rare to find whole, undamaged pieces.
Terminology Ceramic and pottery are often interchangeable archaeological terms but they do have specific differences. Stoneware and earthenware pottery are terms likely to be affixed in archaeology, to rudely made utilitarian items such as bowls, cups, jugs and pots.
There are three basic categories of pottery: earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. They vary according to the clay used to make them, and the temperature needed to fire them. This is the longest-established type of pottery, dating back to the Stone Age. Although its composition can vary significantly, a generic composition of earthenware clay is: 25 percent ball clay, 28 percent kaolin, 32 percent quartz, and 15 percent feldspar.
It is the softest type, being fired at the lowest temperature. It is porous absorbs water and easily scratched. To make earthenware objects waterproof, they need to be coated in a vitreous glass-like liquid, and then re-fired in the kiln. The iron-content of the clay used for earthenware gives a colour which ranges from buff to dark red, or even cream, grey or black, according to the amount present and the atmosphere notably the oxygen content in the kiln during firing.
Earthenware can be as thin as porcelain, but it is less strong, less tough, and more porous than stoneware. Generally speaking, earthenwares are fired at temperatures between degrees Celsius. The category of earthenware includes all ancient pottery, terracotta objects, 16th century and later Japanese and Chinese pottery, as well as European pottery made up to the 17th century.
In particular, it includes maiolica faience or delft a tin-glazed style of earthenware.
Pottery identification is a valuable aid to dating of archaeological sites. Pottery is usually the most common find and potsherds are more stable than organic materials and metals. As pottery techniques and fashions have evolved so it is often possible to be very specific in terms of date and source. This Jigsaw introduction to pottery identification is intended to get you started with basic guidelines and chronology.
EIA pottery. Nene Valley Mortaria — AD.
Today, for many people ‘china’ is a catch-all term for ceramic tea-things, but in industrial circles it means bone china, a form of porcelain that includes bone ash in.
As peculiar as some of the pieces themselves, the language of ceramics is vast and draws from a global dictionary. Peruse our A-Z to find out about some of the terms you might discover in our incredible galleries. Ceramic objects are often identified by their marks. Marks like the Chelsea anchor or the crossed-swords of Meissen are well known and were often pirated , while the significance of others is uncertain.
One such mysterious mark is the capital A found on a rare group of 18th-century British porcelains. Once considered Italian, the group has been tentatively associated with small factories or experimental works at Birmingham, Kentish Town in London, and Gorgie near Edinburgh. The most recent theory is that they were made with clay imported from Virginia by two of the partners in the Bow porcelain factory.
If so, the ‘A’ might refer to George Arnold, a sleeping partner in the firm.
A Brief History of Ceramics and Glass
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Dating clay-based materials like ceramics recovered from archeological sites can be time consuming, not to mention complex and expensive.
The marks shown below are the primary company marks used by Hall China, to present, primarily on collectible dinnerware, teapots and accessories. Marks from are not included because those marks are mainly on earthenware’s, not Hall’s later craze-proof pottery. Please keep in mind that these are the general marks. There are many variations which could include pattern names, line names, private labels, copyright and trademark symbols and other additions or deletions.
The marks shown here are black line drawings. Actual marks can be blurred, smudged and can appear in many colors including gold. Although most Hall China was marked, there are always some exceptions. Slight variations used for large institutional firms such as Jewel Tea and others. Confirm Close. Dating – Hall China Marks The marks shown below are the primary company marks used by Hall China, to present, primarily on collectible dinnerware, teapots and accessories.
Browse Similar. Hall Jewel Tea Autumn Leaf gravy pitcher and covered drippings bowl.
DATED ENGLISH DELFTWARE Tin-Glazed Earthenware Pottery China Collectible
Chinese ceramics vary greatly in their glazes and decoration, and the many technical terms involved can be daunting for collectors who are new to the category. So what is a glaze? The most important ingredient in the glaze is silica, and the variations in type depend on the addition of other materials. Glazes can be applied to the ceramic bodies either before or after firing — techniques known respectively as underglaze and overglaze decoration.
Glazes were originally used for practical reasons because many stoneware and earthenware pots were too porous to act as containers, but aesthetics also played a part. The first Chinese ceramics — handbuilt earthenware pots — date back tens of thousands of years to the Palaeolithic period, but it was not until the Sui and Tang dynasties — AD that technology developed sufficiently for craftsmen to be able to produce uniform vessels on the wheel and colourful glazes in the kiln.
Aug 3, – Antique English earthenware slip decorated flagon initialed JB and dated – Antique Staffordshire Pottery of John Howard.
Curator’s Corner. Every museum, or historic house, has a few salvaged stoneware crocks, jars and jugs. For some reason West Virginia housewives continued to preserve food in grooved top, wax sealed stoneware jars long after glass Mason fruit jar use became widespread. Consequently there are lots of pieces of stoneware around the state. It is often hard to date these objects, so I am going to give you a few tips in dating pots. First, a little simple glaze technology When a piece is tan or gray, the color is determined by the body material.
The clear glaze is a type of soda glass formed in the heat of the kiln. The potter created the glaze by throwing ordinary salt into the fire. The salt reacted with the heat and formed vaporous soda which in turn reacted with the body material forming a soda glass glaze called salt glaze. This glaze was invented in the 16th century in Germany, and was used until c. If the inside of the jug or jar was glazed in the same way as the outside, it was made before
Thermoluminescent Dating of Ancient Ceramics
Type definitions also incorporate additional information about dates, origins, costs and functions of pottery. This page is intended to illustrate the basic principals of visual ceramic type identification, which will allow users to access additional information. Most types of historic ceramics that is, post ceramics of European origin or inspiration are classified according to three primary attributes:. The first step in identifying a pottery type should be the identification of paste type.
Zimler () assigns it a median ceramic date of Fiesta ware (1) is the last type of whiteware we will discuss. With hard, bright underglaze monochromes.
Post-Colonial Ceramics. North American stoneware is non-porous vitrified and stone-like. Paste color generally ranges from gray to tan to reddish browns, and vessels were produced by a variety of methods, including hand throwing, jigger or jolly machines, slip casting and press molding. While properly-fired stoneware is impervious to liquids and does not need glazing, North American stonewares were usually treated with some form of glazing or slip, including salt glaze, Bristol glaze, alkaline glaze and Albany slip.
There were many regional stoneware production centers, producing a variety of wares, primarily utilitarian. Within these regions, there are variations in preferred glaze and form types. This essay and its accompanying photographs are not intended to provide a full scope or range of North American stoneware, but document what is in the collections of the Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory.
Stoneware potters arrived in the English colonies in the early eighteenth century and began production in Pennsylvania, Virginia, New York and New Jersey. Eighteenth-century North American stoneware production was heavily influenced by both the British and German stoneware traditions Greer William Rogers, also known as the Poor Potter of Yorktown, produced salt glazed stoneware that looked a great deal like English brown stoneware Barka Potters like William Crolius and Johannes Remmey, working out of New York, manufactured blue and gray salt glazed stoneware that imitated Rhenish stonewares.
Even into the early nineteenth century, many pieces of North American stoneware exhibit a blending of British and German stoneware traditions, prior to the development of distinctly American forms and decorative styles Greer